M.Sc./ Ph.D HydroPower Engineering (HPE)

This program focus on the description of low or high head hydropower generation, power economics, dams and reservoirs needed for high head generation, river hydraulics including sedimentation, site selection, and construction and operational management of hydropower facilities. Further information about the study programs or research in water resources at the Centre may be obtained by contacting the Director or the Faculty of the Centre.

* For subject detail click on Subject Title

Course No. Subject Examination Marks Credit Hours
Part-I Part II
Theory Sessional Viva Voce
Compulsory Subjects        

CWR-601

APPLIED HYDROLOGY

Measurement accuracy and hydrological data evaluation. Rainfall data, DAD anlaysis. Design storm, Evaporation, Infiltration, infiltration models. Water stages and discharge processing. Direct and indirect stream gauging (current meter,. float, chemical and sonic/electric). Velocity formulas. Discharge analysis, Telemetry, Flow duration curves Hydrograph analysis and synthesis, Unit hydrograph, derivation of unit hydrograph using matrix solution; Mathematical form of S-curve. IUH, Hydrological assessment. Hydrological flood routing. Application of hydrological techniques for the assessment of hydrologic parameters to solve the practical problems. Introduction to HEC-HMS.

Introduction to Rainfall-Runoff modeling. Modeling of ungauged catchments, Discharge data transposition, Reservoir types and general introduction to reservoir design & operation. Introduction to data screening, statistical techniques/distributions, Frequency Analysis of floods and droughts.

100

60

40

(2+1)

CWR-611

Advance Open Channel & Computational Hydraulics

Flow resistance, computation of uniform, non-uniform, critical and gradually varied flow. Analysis of flow profiles. Hydraulic jump and energy dissipation. Normal depth in compound channel. Channel design. Rapidly varied flow computation. Characteristic of flow over, weirs, visualization of hydraulic jump, flow over spillway, ogee weir, flow around piers. Flow in converging and diverging channel section.

Unsteady flow. Height and celerity of surge waves. Derivation St. Venant equations and Boussinesq equations, Navier Stokes equations for unsteady flow. Method of characteristics, Finite different methods. Stability of numerical methods. Explicit finite different schemes, implicit finite difference schemes, initial and boundary conditions. Numerical modeling for unsteady flow. Channel network analysis. Two dimensional (2-D) free surface flow. Shallow water wave, kinematic wave theory, diffusion wave theory. Supercritical and split flow analysis. Hydraulic flood routing, floodway and channel improvement analysis.

100

60

40

(2+1)

CWR-612

Dam and Reservoir Engineering
Introduction: Description, purposes, single and multipurpose, Classification, Types; Planning-data, team; Site selection, Components, Surveys, Layout; Impacts. Dam Hydrology and Reservoir Sedimentation: Purposes, Yield; Flow data: Dependable yield, Reservoir sizing, ripple mass curve, Reservoir operation; Spillway and diversion floods, reservoir routing; Sediment- yield, trap, consolidation, Deposition distribution, Reservoir life.

Dam Geology and Foundation: Purposes, characteristics of foundation, Rock classification and characteristics, Geologic requirements, Dam site investigations, Foundation treatment, Earthquake hazards, Construction materials, Grading, embankment materials, Field and lab tests. Loads and stresses in dams, Force analysis, stability requirements.

Earth-fill dam: Design criteria, Types, Foundation design, Seepage-analysis, control and mitigation, Embankment design (core, crest, free board, slopes, materials, filter, slope protection), Stability analysis. Rock-fill dam: Types, Embankment design, Selection of rock materials, Foundation preparation, Seepage control, Slope protection, Stability analysis.

Concrete dams: Loads, Gravity dam -dam stability, stress analysis, profile selection; Arch dam -Layout/arch geometry and profile, arch stress analysis, thin or thick arch, force analysis, abutment strength; Buttress dam-buttress analysis and profile design; Seepage control, Spillways layout and type.

Spillways: Design flood, design discharge, Location, Types, Energy dissipation arrangements. Outlet works: Types, Tunnels-design, lining, Inlet, Trash racks, Gates and valves, Energy dissipation.

Hydropower works: Layout of tunnels, headrace, fore bay, penstock, surge tanks, powerhouse, forebay and tail race. Powerhouse sizing. Dam construction: River diversion, coffer dam. Dam Instrumentation and Safety: Failure-Causes, controls, Inspection, Instrumentation.

100

60

40

(2+1)

CWR-613

Design of Hydraulic Structures
Weir and Barrages – theory and design;, Theory and design of canal regulation structures - Head regulators Cross regulators and Escape regulators; Intakes, Fish passes. Retrogression. Barrage operation for irrigation, flood and hydropower operations. u/s and d/s bela formation and control.
Cross drainage works – supper passage, aqueduct, siphon, symphonic aqueduct, level crossing; Highway crossings: bridges culverts, and dips/ causeway, Drainage inlet for surface drains.
Theory and design of drop structures / canal falls. Theory and design of silt excluding structures, Hydraulic design of pumping stations: Theory and design of canal outlets. Design of flow measuring structures i.e. weir, V-notches, flumes. Concept of structure calibration, determination of discharge coefficient of different hydraulic structures (gated and ungated)
Spillway: Types, properties and limitations, Hydraulic design of spillway, energy dissipation devices on and below spillway. Hydraulic design of stilling basins. Dam outlets/tunnels: types, design, lining, bifurcations, energy dissipation, gates/valves, cavitation

100

60

40

(2+1)

CWR-621
Design of Hydropower Plants
Waterways: Intakes, Trash rack, Stop-logs, Power canal and tunnel, Cavitation, Surge tank, Penstock,/pressure shaft, Draft tube, Gates/valves, Tail race
Hydro-mechanical components: Turbine and its types, governor, parts, Typical dimensions. Turbine load/efficiency curves, turbine selection, Turbine manufactures.
Power house: Layout, Sizing of generator room, and other ancillaries, Workshop, office, storage, workers and utility area, Loading bay, Height requirements, Pressure relieving structures, Dewatering of powerhouse pit. Ventilation, Disaster prevention, Overhead cranes and jibs. Electro-mechanical components: Generator, step-up transformer, high voltage switch gear, low voltage switch gear, high voltage circuit breakers, MVILV installations, control and protection.
100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-622
PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT OF HYDROPOWER PROJECTS
Comparison with other energy source, stages of hydropower development, selection criteria and approval, components, low head and high head, low head developments; civil components; hydro-mechanical, components; electromechanical components and auxiliary equipment. Project layout and sizing, low head and high head, interdependence between layout, sizing and economics; alternative project layout, selection of project components; level of detail of quantities and costs in different stages of project development; estimation of quantities and costs and optimization and selection of the plant size. Peaking plants, Risk analysis for public and private sector investments.
100 60 40 (2+1)
Optional Subjects (Any two of the following)

CWR-602

Catchment Modeling
Water on the catchment: catchment morphology, storage on the catchment, characterising the catchment. Catchment processes and hydrologic losses, details with reference to modeling. Runoff Generation: Basic definitions, Type of runoff, Traditional view of runoff, Factors affecting runoff, What causes runoff? Prevailing theories of runoff generation.
What is catchment modeling. Modelling approaches and their requirements. Black Box, Conceptual Physical based, Semi-distributed, Distributed. Description of Stanford Watershed Model (STM), TOP model, System Hydrologic European model (SHE model).

100

60

40

(2+1)

CWR-603

Statistical Hydrology
Fundamentals of Statistics. Introduction to deterministic and stochastic processes in hydrology. Hydrologic data, types and quality. Properties of random variables; consistency and homogeneity of data. Introduction to statistical and probability theory, application of classical statistical distributions to hydrological problems; flood frequency analysis; statistical inference from hydrological samples. Simple and multiple correlation and regression, analysis of time series. Introduction to stochastic models, their formulation and application.

100

60

40

(2+1)

CWR-604

Reservoir Design and Operation
General: Classification of reservoir, Purpose of reservoir operation, Single vs. multi-purpose, Type of hydrological data required for reservoir operation & design, Methods to determine water availability for reservoir design/operation project, Direct observation method, rainfall-runoff series method etc., Methods to determine capacity of reservoir, e.g. Ripple mass curve method, Pump storage and its design & operation. Introduction to reservoir operation using system analysis techniques. Conjunctive use of reservoir, Flood control procedure by reservoir operation. Flood routing through a reservoir, Introduction to computer methods for reservoir operation and design, General discussion on the available, widely used, computer models for reservoir operation and design. Reservoir sedimentation, Sediment sluicing/management.

100

60

40

(2+1)

CWR-605

Flood Estimation and Control
General:  Definitions, classification of floods, Introduction to flood estimation and design, philosophy, meaning of frequency.
Flood Estimation: Peak Flow determination, flood determination for ungauged catchments, flood determination for ungauged catchments with frequency relationship, flood estimation for gauged watersheds, probable maximum flood, flood hydrograph of a given frequency, prediction of the runoff hydrograph from a design storm, flood estimation from catchment characteristics, flood estimation by statistical methods, regional flood frequency analysis, flood hydrograph estimation using SCS method, estimation of flood using routing techniques, choice of estimation techniques. Flood Control:       General, classification of floods, estimation of peak flood, methods of flood control, flood control by reservoirs, retarding basins, construction of leavees, channel improvement, soil conservation measures, combination of flood control measures, flood forecasting and warning, results of controlling floods, flood control economics. Disaster management/Adjustments: Emergency evacuation and rescheduling, structural adjustment, land use change, insurance.

100

60

40

(2+1)

CWR-606

Groundwater Hydrology and Exploration
Groundwater Hydrology: Need and occurrence of groundwater, groundwater uses and issues, types of aquifer, groundwater reservoir, consolidated & unconsolidated rocks, groundwater resources of Pakistan, Groundwater storage & supply, groundwater, storage in confined & unconfined aquifers, hydrologic water balance/budget, flow in porous media, Darcy’s law, its validity, Darcy law for 1, 2 and 3 D flow. Determination of aquifer parameters,
Governing equations for flow in confined, & water table aquifers, boundary conditions, solution of groundwater flow problems using analytical, graphical, analog and numerical methods, hydraulics of multi fluids in aquifers, , multi-dimensional flow, one dimensional flow with distributed recharge.
1-D flow and radial flow under steady and unsteady conditions, Well hydraulics, pumping tests, Ground water numerical/computer models.
Groundwater exploration: Surface and subsurface geophysical methods, analysis of aquifer test data, well drilling methods, well screens and methods of sediment size analysis, water well design, well development, water well pumps, water quality protection near wells. Salt water intrusion, water mining.

100

60

40

(2+1)

CWR-614

Sediment Transport and River Engineering
Fluvial System and sedimentation, properties of sediment, individual and bulk properties, hydraulics of sediment transport, interaction of fluid and particle. Flow resistance drag force, lift force concept, resistance flow in open channel with moveable boundaries and bed form. Incipient motion, suspended load, bed load total load computation. Mobile bed visualization, determination of Manning’s roughness coefficient. Bed form measurement. Measurement of scour depths around the pier.
Sediment carrying capacity of channel. Erosion and sedimentation of cohesive material. Degradation, aggradations and local scour in alluvial channel. Stable alluvial channel design. Analysis of alluvial bed form. Sediment measurement. Bed load, suspended load measurement. Sediment transport modeling in rivers and reservoirs. Bed material analysis, sieve analysis, VAT method, suspended sediment analysis, pipette method, application of HEC-6 model for river and reservoir sedimentation. Delta formation and movement, reservoir survey. Turbid density currents, sediment flushing and excavation.

River morphology, hydraulics of river flow, river hydrographic survey, river regulation and control. Measurement of river cross-section. River training works, spur, guidelines flood protection works. Effects of river training on flow dynamics. Weir gate regulation and sediment deposition in head ponds. Analysis of river morphology. Stream gauging. Floodway analysis. Application of River Analysis System, HEC-RAS model, Telemetry, River water quality modeling.

100

60

40

(2+1)

CWR-615

Physical and Numerical Modeling
Basic of physical modeling. Principles and theory of similarity. Dimensional analysis. Scale ratios, scale and boundary effects. Dynamic similarity, kinematic similarity, physical modeling river and flood plains. Distorted models. Geometric model. Mobile bed model. Models for dynamic behavior of structures. Hydrodynamic action on stilling basin. Dynamic actions on break waters. Dynamic wave modeling,
Physical Model testing procedure. Physical modeling for coastal area. Unsteady flow. St. Venant equation for unsteady flow. Mathematical formulation of physical processes. Basic concept of numerical modeling. Finite difference method, explicit and implicit Finite Different schemes. Kinematic diffusion and hydrodynamics modeling. Numerical model for natural channels, Dam break modeling, HEC-RAS Model calibration and data requirement.

100

60

40

(2+1)

CWR-651

Arid Zone Hydrology
Introduction, the arid zone environment and hydrological measurements, traditional forms of water use in arid zones.
Rainfall characterized by convective storms, Intensity characteristics of storm rainfall, variability of annual rainfall, long term trends in annual rainfall, statistical analysis of annual point rainfall, spatial variability of annual rainfall, seasonal rainfall. Raingauge networks, the distribution of recording, rainfall intensity analysis, estimation of mean areal rainfall, rainfall depth-duration-frequency relationships, probability of daily rainfall occurrences, double mass analysis with limited and scarce data.
Climatic elements affecting evapotranspiration, temporal and spatial variability of potential evapotranspiration, estimation of evaporation and evapotranspiration in arid zones.
Characteristics of surface runoff, flood events, annual and seasonal runoff amounts in arid zones, Streamgauging network requirements, data processing and analysis. The effects of climate on sedimentation, the sedimentation process in arid lands. Characteristics of Groundwater in Arid Zones. Special techniques useful in arid zone hydrology. Resource Assessment Methods: Surface water estimation and use, groundwater recharge estimation, artificial groundwater recharge.

100

60

40

(2+1)

CWR-652

Groundwater Modeling
Groundwater Modeling

100

60

40

(2+1)

CWR-653

Hydrometeorology
Microclimatic, local and global aspects. Measurement of climatic factors, air masses and fronts, synoptic maps, cyclones and anticyclones. Monsoons, global climatic changes.
Hydrometeorological network planning and design. Precipitation measurement. Accuracy of measurement of hydrometeorological elements.
Precipitation analysis. Depth-Area-Duration. Probable maximum precipitation and probable maximum flood computations. Intensity-duration-frequency analysis. Antecedent precipitation index. Coaxial analysis. The link of hydrometeorological parameters and experimental basin studies. Land atmosphere interaction

100

60

40

(2+1)

CWR-654

Snow and Ice Hydrology
Introduction:     Definitions, Snow and its classification, Distribution of snow, Ripening of snow, Snowmelt process, Design of network, Measurement of snow at time of fall, Snow surveying, Factors affecting runoff from snowmelt, Techniques of Analysis of snowmelt for Forecasting runoff, Snow compaction, Snow loads, Properties and Structure of Ice. Distribution of Glaciers and Perennial Ice, Movement of glaciers and their impacts. Introduction to avalanches and their classification.

100

60

40

(2+1)

CWR-655

Watershed Planning and Development
Why watershed planning & development? Watershed morphology, storage on the watershed. Characterizing the watershed. Drainage network. Watershed management and large scale changes. Causes of soil erosion. Watershed development inventory. Watershed development requirements w.r.t. to water resources & hydropower development projects. Watershed management practices required for watershed development. Soil and water conservation engineering practices for watershed development. Land consolidation, water resources development, channel improvement and river training, flood control and management, restructuring the forestry practices.

100

60

40

(2+1)

CWR-671

Geological and Geotechnical Investigation

Formation of soil and soil deposits, origin and composition of soils. Geological investigations for construction of dams, reservoirs, abutments, foundation and location of borrow areas.
Seepage, seepage force, quick condition, flow net theory and applications, seepage through earth dams,. Compressibility and settlement, consolidation theory, consolidation tests. Shear strength in soil, Mohr’s theory of failure, stability of slopes, methods for prediction of slope stability. Lateral earth pressure, active and passive earth pressure, Rankine’s theory, effects of surface loads. Site improvement: compaction stabilization, dewatering and use of geosynthetics. Bearing capacity of shallow foundation, deformation and bearing failure, bearing capacity evaluation, effects of groundwater.
Field and laboratory tests: standard penetration test, permeability, density, rock quality designation, plastic limit, shrinkage limit and liquid limit etc.
Use of drilling equipments. Well logging, lithological well logging and geophysical logs. Collection of disturbed and undisturbed samples from the subsurface formations. Use of investigational tunnels, adits, shafts, test pits, trenches for development for subsurface structures.

Use of aerial photography and geophysical methods for geological investigations. Different types of drilling method and their importance with reference to investigation in different formation.

100

60

40

(2+1)

CWR-691

Environmental Impact Assessment
What is environmental impact assessment (EIA)? Why EIA is required for Water Resources Development projects. Basic principles. Procedure of EIA. Subject oriented requirements. Ecological evaluation. Practical considerations in writing impact statements.
EIA of water resources development projects in general. EIA of dam & reservoirs, Irrigation & Drainage and Hydropower projects. National environmental policy. Future of environmental impact assessment studies.

100

60

40

(2+1)

CWR-692

Project Construction and Management
Manager and management views, problem solving, project supervision. Data, decision making and implementation, Responsibility, interwoven problems, Project organization and strategy, Job planning and management. Project networking and control, project staff behavior, business problems, resource inventory, project finances, Land acquisition and use techniques. Project construction strategy; project phasing, cash flow, staff requirements. Material processing and handling, equipment and machinery, transportation fleet. Construction plant and machinery – functional classification and application, factors affecting selection of construction equipment. Construction planning techniques, activity sampling, incentives, value engineering, risk analysis, resource leveling. Operational analysis, schedule control. Network analysis techniques, use of CPM/PERT/Primvera. Computer applications to cost engineering, Earthwork excavation, handling and transportation machinery. River diversions during construction, construction of ancillary works. Deep/shallow water construction in rivers and sea. Construction techniques for dams, power stations, irrigation system, flood control measures.

100

60

40

(2+1)

CWR-693

Remote Sensing and GIS Applications in Water Resources
Components of GIS, function of GIS, vector data, raster data. Coordinate system, map projection. Spatial data input, spatial data management and analysis, overlay operation, attribute data handling. Network analysis. Statistical operation using GIS. Introduction to remote sensing and remotely sensed data. Electromagnetic radiation. Different types of satellite. Data acquisition, digital image processing. Aerial photography. Image analysis, image classification supervised and unsupervised classification, Image enhancement, edge enhancement, digital elevation model, TIN model, geostatistical tools, kriging techniques. Image interpretation for irrigation system, forestry, snow cover, and geology. Watershed delineation. Regional scale concept. Application of ILWIS model for: Irrigation water requirement, Determining of peak runoff, Erosion modeling, Flood hazard analysis, Geological survey, Groundwater pollution vulnerability assessment, GPS, components of GPS. Survey using GPS Errors in GPS survey, Total station.

100

60

40

(2+1)

CWR-694

Water Resources Planning and Economics
Planning: definitions, importance, characteristics, planning objectives. Planning process: levels, phases, steps, planning reports, project appraisal. WR development purposes, alternatives and their evaluation, multi-purpose planning, regional planning, Administration of planning programs, Decision making process; Demand projection; Production practices and constraints; Land, water and human resources.
Water resources planning in Pakistan, PC proforma, Water sector plans, development plans, planning organizations. Planning data: requirements, analysis and management, data transformation and transposition, forecasting. Planning aids and tools: optimization, simulation, remote sensing, GIS, etc, mathematical modeling. Project impact: environment, social, Public participation in WR projects.
Project Costs and benefits: Cost - components, construction and O&M costs, direct and indirect costs, cost phasing; Project benefits - primary & secondary, direct and indirect benefits, social and economic benefits; Adjustments of costs and benefits (shadow prices, subsidies, escalation, taxes). Engineering economy: Project

100

60

40

(2+1)

CWR-695

Water Resources System Analysis
Basic concepts of system engineering: objective function, constraint equations, decision variables, feasible, basic and optimal solutions, slack and surplus variables; Simplex method: standard and canonical forms, basic and non-basic variables, solution of simplex problems; Linear Programming: formulation of linear programming (LP) model, application of LP model to water resources problems, dual LP models, application of Tora and Lindo softwares, interpretation of solution output, sensitivity & range analysis; Integer Programming (IP) and its application, mixed integer programming; Dynamic programming (DP): stage and state variables, formulation and solution of DP models and their applications.

100

60

40

(2+1)

CWR-696

Computer Applications in Water Resources
Introduction to computers (Analog and Digital Computer). Computer functions (Opening, Saving, Editing and Modifying a file. Changing file name/path/drive. Creating and managing a folder. Printing a file). Internet utilization (Search engines, explore a specific site, E-mail applications, data transfer etc).
Use of Office Package (Word processor, Use of spread sheet for numeric calculations and drawing graphs, use of Power point.). Creating drawings/graphics using Office Package and specific graphic software as Corel Draw, AutoCADD etc
Preamble to computer language (Elements of programming. Input/Output, Assignment, and control statements. Loops and structured Programming. Programming Packages/Soft wares (Installation, Usage, Help file, Reference/Technical/User Manuals, and Application). Case Studies using HEC-RAS, HEC-HMS, HEC-RES and SIC models.

100

60

40

(2+1)

Seminar & Thesis

CWR-699

Seminar on current issues and special topics

CWR-700

M.Sc. Thesis

CWR-800

Ph.D. Dissertation

 

 

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