This program emphasizes on the techniques, requirements, modalities, constraints, alternatives, etc. for scientific and optimum use of available water resources. Water requirements, water availability, water use policies, water regulations under various demand-availability scenarios, on-site water utilization, irrigation and drainage requirements and design, soil salinity issues, irrigation hydraulics, formulation of project plans for development/use of water resources, socio-environmental aspects of the water uses are presented under this program. In addition students are trained to develop and use computer programs for evaluation of water uses including remote sensing and GIS tools too. This program transforms an engineer to a good water resources manager.

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Course No. Subject Examination Marks Credit Hours
Part-I Part II
Theory Sessional Viva Voce
Compulsory Subjects

Measurement accuracy and hydrological data evaluation. Rainfall data, DAD anlaysis. Design storm, Evaporation, Infiltration, infiltration models. Water stages and discharge processing. Direct and indirect stream gauging (current meter,. float, chemical and sonic/electric). Velocity formulas. Discharge analysis, Telemetry, Flow duration curves Hydrograph analysis and synthesis, Unit hydrograph, derivation of unit hydrograph using matrix solution; Mathematical form of S-curve. IUH, Hydrological assessment. Hydrological flood routing. Application of hydrological techniques for the assessment of hydrologic parameters to solve the practical problems. Introduction to HEC-HMS.

Introduction to Rainfall-Runoff modeling. Modeling of ungauged catchments, Discharge data transposition, Reservoir types and general introduction to reservoir design & operation. Introduction to data screening, statistical techniques/distributions, Frequency Analysis of floods and droughts.

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-606 Groundwater Hydrology and Exploration

Groundwater Hydrology: Need and occurrence of groundwater, groundwater uses and issues, types of aquifer, groundwater reservoir, consolidated & unconsolidated rocks, groundwater resources of Pakistan, Groundwater storage & supply, groundwater, storage in confined & unconfined aquifers, hydrologic water balance/budget, flow in porous media, Darcy’s law, its validity, Darcy law for 1, 2 and 3 D flow. Determination of aquifer parameters,
Governing equations for flow in confined, & water table aquifers, boundary conditions, solution of groundwater flow problems using analytical, graphical, analog and numerical methods, hydraulics of multi fluids in aquifers, , multi-dimensional flow, one dimensional flow with distributed recharge.
1-D flow and radial flow under steady and unsteady conditions, Well hydraulics, pumping tests, Ground water numerical/computer models.
Groundwater exploration: Surface and subsurface geophysical methods, analysis of aquifer test data, well drilling methods, well screens and methods of sediment size analysis, water well design, well development, water well pumps, water quality protection near wells. Salt water intrusion, water mining.

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-611 Advance Open Channel & Computational Hydraulics

Flow resistance, computation of uniform, non-uniform, critical and gradually varied flow. Analysis of flow profiles. Hydraulic jump and energy dissipation. Normal depth in compound channel. Channel design. Rapidly varied flow computation. Characteristic of flow over, weirs, visualization of hydraulic jump, flow over spillway, ogee weir, flow around piers. Flow in converging and diverging channel section.

Unsteady flow. Height and celerity of surge waves. Derivation St. Venant equations and Boussinesq equations, Navier Stokes equations for unsteady flow. Method of characteristics, Finite different methods. Stability of numerical methods. Explicit finite different schemes, implicit finite difference schemes, initial and boundary conditions. Numerical modeling for unsteady flow. Channel network analysis. Two dimensional (2-D) free surface flow. Shallow water wave, kinematic wave theory, diffusion wave theory. Supercritical and split flow analysis. Hydraulic flood routing, floodway and channel improvement analysis.

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-631 Drainage Engineering

General: Introduction, Definitions; Sources of drainage water; drainage requirements; Impacts of deficient drainage; Solutions; Problems identification; Water table surveys.
Sub-surface drainage: Soil-water relations, moisture profile, drainable pore volume; flow equations; soil hydraulic properties, Pipe drainage design; steady state design: unsteady design:, dynamic equilibrium, Pipe drain system; layout; materials; pipe sizes; envelop design; construction; drainage structures; performance monitoring; pipe cleaning, O&M issues, Drainage criteria; steady or unsteady design; humid areas; irrigated areas, Drainable surplus; components; recharge; discharge; water balance quantification; spatial and temporal variability, Tubewell drainage design; layout; components; materials, O&M. Interceptor drains, concept, design: layout.
Surface drainage: Surface drainage system; drainage protection / frequency analysis; flow terminology; factors affecting flow; land forming; Field, farm and main drainage; Drainage ditches; Design discharge: rational method; empirical method; curve number method; temporal runoff distribution: unit hydrograph; design hydrographs; urban drainage. Design of drain; discharge, layout; drain section design; L-section; X-section; surface drainage structures; O&M, pumping stations and flood control. Planning of drainage projects and investigations:        Drainage Projects in Pakistan, History, project description, Drainage projects planning; Steps; diagnosis, solutions; data; investigations; surface surveys; ground water surveys; processing and interpretation; maps, project formulation.

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-632 Irrigation Engineering and Management

Objectives of irrigation: scope & major issues, irrigation and food security; Soil-water-plant relationships, soil moisture indicators, available soil moisture, management allowed deficit, soil moisture determination; Flow measurement, water losses and their determination
Irrigation water requirements: reference evapotranspiration (ET), measurement and estimation of ET, crop coefficients, water production functions.
Irrigation scheduling, deficit irrigation water, water distribution at farm: on-demand, continuous and rotational schedules; Irrigation efficiencies, distribution uniformity and water productivities; Conjunctive use.
Concepts of surface irrigation, surface irrigation process, infiltration and infiltration models, measurement of infiltration; Types of surface irrigation systems, their suitability and limitations, Volume balance theory and its application, evaluation of irrigation systems and their improvement, design fundamentals;
Irrigation system layout and operations at division, circle and command level, Water allocation and distribution at canal command, region, country and basin level., Water management at various levels.

100 60 40 (2+1)

Water quality parameters, receiving water processes, general concept of water quality modeling, general water quality model components, general mathematical formulations for water quality models, model data requirements and prediction issues, objectives of computer modeling in water quality management studies, cases studies of water quality models, utilization of modeling in water quality management studies, evaluation of wastewater treatment alternatives, wastewater characteristics, water use and wastewater production, wastewater flow, composition of wastewaters, wastewater treatment techniques, development of alternative wastewater treatment schemes, wastewater treatment cost estimation, elements of cost estimation, cost estimates of wastewater treatment techniques, a systems approach to water quality management, institutional aspects of water quality management planning, environmental assessments in water quality management planning.

100 60 40 (2+1)
Optional Subjects (Any two of the following)
CWR-602 Catchment Modeling

Water on the catchment: catchment morphology, storage on the catchment, characterising the catchment. Catchment processes and hydrologic losses, details with reference to modeling. Runoff Generation: Basic definitions, Type of runoff, Traditional view of runoff, Factors affecting runoff, What causes runoff? Prevailing theories of runoff generation.
What is catchment modeling. Modelling approaches and their requirements. Black Box, Conceptual Physical based, Semi-distributed, Distributed. Description of Stanford Watershed Model (STM), TOP model, System Hydrologic European model (SHE model).

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-603 Statistical Hydrology

Fundamentals of Statistics. Introduction to deterministic and stochastic processes in hydrology. Hydrologic data, types and quality. Properties of random variables; consistency and homogeneity of data. Introduction to statistical and probability theory, application of classical statistical distributions to hydrological problems; flood frequency analysis; statistical inference from hydrological samples. Simple and multiple correlation and regression, analysis of time series. Introduction to stochastic models, their formulation and application.

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-604 Reservoir Design and Operation

General: Classification of reservoir, Purpose of reservoir operation, Single vs. multi-purpose, Type of hydrological data required for reservoir operation & design, Methods to determine water availability for reservoir design/operation project, Direct observation method, rainfall-runoff series method etc., Methods to determine capacity of reservoir, e.g. Ripple mass curve method, Pump storage and its design & operation. Introduction to reservoir operation using system analysis techniques. Conjunctive use of reservoir, Flood control procedure by reservoir operation. Flood routing through a reservoir, Introduction to computer methods for reservoir operation and design, General discussion on the available, widely used, computer models for reservoir operation and design. Reservoir sedimentation, Sediment sluicing/management.

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-605 Flood Estimation and Control

General:  Definitions, classification of floods, Introduction to flood estimation and design, philosophy, meaning of frequency.
Flood Estimation: Peak Flow determination, flood determination for ungauged catchments, flood determination for ungauged catchments with frequency relationship, flood estimation for gauged watersheds, probable maximum flood, flood hydrograph of a given frequency, prediction of the runoff hydrograph from a design storm, flood estimation from catchment characteristics, flood estimation by statistical methods, regional flood frequency analysis, flood hydrograph estimation using SCS method, estimation of flood using routing techniques, choice of estimation techniques. Flood Control:       General, classification of floods, estimation of peak flood, methods of flood control, flood control by reservoirs, retarding basins, construction of leavees, channel improvement, soil conservation measures, combination of flood control measures, flood forecasting and warning, results of controlling floods, flood control economics. Disaster management/Adjustments: Emergency evacuation and rescheduling, structural adjustment, land use change, insurance.

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-612 Dam and Reservoir Engineering

Introduction: Description, purposes, single and multipurpose, Classification, Types; Planning-data, team; Site selection, Components, Surveys, Layout; Impacts. Dam Hydrology and Reservoir Sedimentation: Purposes, Yield; Flow data: Dependable yield, Reservoir sizing, ripple mass curve, Reservoir operation; Spillway and diversion floods, reservoir routing; Sediment- yield, trap, consolidation, Deposition distribution, Reservoir life.

Dam Geology and Foundation: Purposes, characteristics of foundation, Rock classification and characteristics, Geologic requirements, Dam site investigations, Foundation treatment, Earthquake hazards, Construction materials, Grading, embankment materials, Field and lab tests. Loads and stresses in dams, Force analysis, stability requirements.

Earth-fill dam: Design criteria, Types, Foundation design, Seepage-analysis, control and mitigation, Embankment design (core, crest, free board, slopes, materials, filter, slope protection), Stability analysis. Rock-fill dam: Types, Embankment design, Selection of rock materials, Foundation preparation, Seepage control, Slope protection, Stability analysis.

Concrete dams: Loads, Gravity dam -dam stability, stress analysis, profile selection; Arch dam -Layout/arch geometry and profile, arch stress analysis, thin or thick arch, force analysis, abutment strength; Buttress dam-buttress analysis and profile design; Seepage control, Spillways layout and type.

Spillways: Design flood, design discharge, Location, Types, Energy dissipation arrangements. Outlet works: Types, Tunnels-design, lining, Inlet, Trash racks, Gates and valves, Energy dissipation.

Hydropower works: Layout of tunnels, headrace, fore bay, penstock, surge tanks, powerhouse, forebay and tail race. Powerhouse sizing. Dam construction: River diversion, coffer dam. Dam Instrumentation and Safety: Failure-Causes, controls, Inspection, Instrumentation.

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-613 Design of Hydraulic Structures

Weir and Barrages – theory and design;, Theory and design of canal regulation structures – Head regulators Cross regulators and Escape regulators; Intakes, Fish passes. Retrogression. Barrage operation for irrigation, flood and hydropower operations. u/s and d/s bela formation and control.
Cross drainage works – supper passage, aqueduct, siphon, symphonic aqueduct, level crossing; Highway crossings: bridges culverts, and dips/ causeway, Drainage inlet for surface drains.
Theory and design of drop structures / canal falls. Theory and design of silt excluding structures, Hydraulic design of pumping stations: Theory and design of canal outlets. Design of flow measuring structures i.e. weir, V-notches, flumes. Concept of structure calibration, determination of discharge coefficient of different hydraulic structures (gated and ungated)
Spillway: Types, properties and limitations, Hydraulic design of spillway, energy dissipation devices on and below spillway. Hydraulic design of stilling basins. Dam outlets/tunnels: types, design, lining, bifurcations, energy dissipation, gates/valves, cavitation

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-614 Sediment Transport and River Engineering

Fluvial System and sedimentation, properties of sediment, individual and bulk properties, hydraulics of sediment transport, interaction of fluid and particle. Flow resistance drag force, lift force concept, resistance flow in open channel with moveable boundaries and bed form. Incipient motion, suspended load, bed load total load computation. Mobile bed visualization, determination of Manning’s roughness coefficient. Bed form measurement. Measurement of scour depths around the pier.
Sediment carrying capacity of channel. Erosion and sedimentation of cohesive material. Degradation, aggradations and local scour in alluvial channel. Stable alluvial channel design. Analysis of alluvial bed form. Sediment measurement. Bed load, suspended load measurement. Sediment transport modeling in rivers and reservoirs. Bed material analysis, sieve analysis, VAT method, suspended sediment analysis, pipette method, application of HEC-6 model for river and reservoir sedimentation. Delta formation and movement, reservoir survey. Turbid density currents, sediment flushing and excavation.

River morphology, hydraulics of river flow, river hydrographic survey, river regulation and control. Measurement of river cross-section. River training works, spur, guidelines flood protection works. Effects of river training on flow dynamics. Weir gate regulation and sediment deposition in head ponds. Analysis of river morphology. Stream gauging. Floodway analysis. Application of River Analysis System, HEC-RAS model, Telemetry, River water quality modeling.

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-615 Physical and Numerical Modeling

Basic of physical modeling. Principles and theory of similarity. Dimensional analysis. Scale ratios, scale and boundary effects. Dynamic similarity, kinematic similarity, physical modeling river and flood plains. Distorted models. Geometric model. Mobile bed model. Models for dynamic behavior of structures. Hydrodynamic action on stilling basin. Dynamic actions on break waters. Dynamic wave modeling,
Physical Model testing procedure. Physical modeling for coastal area. Unsteady flow. St. Venant equation for unsteady flow. Mathematical formulation of physical processes. Basic concept of numerical modeling. Finite difference method, explicit and implicit Finite Different schemes. Kinematic diffusion and hydrodynamics modeling. Numerical model for natural channels, Dam break modeling, HEC-RAS Model calibration and data requirement.

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-651 Arid Zone Hydrology

Introduction, the arid zone environment and hydrological measurements, traditional forms of water use in arid zones.
Rainfall characterized by convective storms, Intensity characteristics of storm rainfall, variability of annual rainfall, long term trends in annual rainfall, statistical analysis of annual point rainfall, spatial variability of annual rainfall, seasonal rainfall. Raingauge networks, the distribution of recording, rainfall intensity analysis, estimation of mean areal rainfall, rainfall depth-duration-frequency relationships, probability of daily rainfall occurrences, double mass analysis with limited and scarce data.
Climatic elements affecting evapotranspiration, temporal and spatial variability of potential evapotranspiration, estimation of evaporation and evapotranspiration in arid zones.
Characteristics of surface runoff, flood events, annual and seasonal runoff amounts in arid zones, Streamgauging network requirements, data processing and analysis. The effects of climate on sedimentation, the sedimentation process in arid lands. Characteristics of Groundwater in Arid Zones. Special techniques useful in arid zone hydrology. Resource Assessment Methods: Surface water estimation and use, groundwater recharge estimation, artificial groundwater recharge.

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-652 Groundwater Modeling

Groundwater Modeling

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-653 Hydrometeorology

Microclimatic, local and global aspects. Measurement of climatic factors, air masses and fronts, synoptic maps, cyclones and anticyclones. Monsoons, global climatic changes.
Hydrometeorological network planning and design. Precipitation measurement. Accuracy of measurement of hydrometeorological elements.
Precipitation analysis. Depth-Area-Duration. Probable maximum precipitation and probable maximum flood computations. Intensity-duration-frequency analysis. Antecedent precipitation index. Coaxial analysis. The link of hydrometeorological parameters and experimental basin studies. Land atmosphere interaction

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-654 Snow and Ice Hydrology

Introduction:     Definitions, Snow and its classification, Distribution of snow, Ripening of snow, Snowmelt process, Design of network, Measurement of snow at time of fall, Snow surveying, Factors affecting runoff from snowmelt, Techniques of Analysis of snowmelt for Forecasting runoff, Snow compaction, Snow loads, Properties and Structure of Ice. Distribution of Glaciers and Perennial Ice, Movement of glaciers and their impacts. Introduction to avalanches and their classification.

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-655 Watershed Planning and Development

Why watershed planning & development? Watershed morphology, storage on the watershed. Characterizing the watershed. Drainage network. Watershed management and large scale changes. Causes of soil erosion. Watershed development inventory. Watershed development requirements w.r.t. to water resources & hydropower development projects. Watershed management practices required for watershed development. Soil and water conservation engineering practices for watershed development. Land consolidation, water resources development, channel improvement and river training, flood control and management, restructuring the forestry practices.

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-681 Pressurized Irrigation System

Adaptability of sprinkler and trickle irrigation systems; Types of sprinkler irrigation systems: portable, semi-portable and permanent systems, hand-move, toe move, side-roll and raingun sprinklers, centre-pivot and linear move systems; Components of a sprinkler system: pump, mainline and laterals, sprinkler heads. Types of sprinkler heads and their characteristics; Water application patterns by stationary sprinklers, effect of wind and drift losses, sprinkler discharge, water application depth and spacing; Evaluation of a sprinkler system: water application uniformity and application efficiency, wind losses and pressure variation; Layout of set sprinklers: number of sprinkler heads & lateral positions, topographic effect, main line layout, preliminary design; Pipe and hydraulic, pressure & friction losses: economical pipe size selection; Centre-pivot sprinkler system: water application rates & patterns, irrigation depth and speed of the system, variation of discharge along the lateral and evaluation; Trickle irrigation system and its components, emitters and their types, criteria for selection of emitters, clogging of emitters and filtration, design of a trickle system.

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-682 Land Water Management

Diagnosis and properties of salt affected soils. Diagnostic procedures for evaluating salinity/sodicity of soils. Ion exchange and dynamics of salts. Leaching theory and salt balance. Management of salt affected soils. Reclamation of salt affected soils. Planning for reclamation. Role of crops in soil reclamation.

Significance and scope of soil and water conservation, soil erosion types, factors affecting soil erosion, water erosion control, mechanism of water erosion, vegetative waterways design, terrace design embankments and farm ponds, design of farm ponds, agricultural watershed management.

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-691 Environmental Impact Assessment

What is environmental impact assessment (EIA)? Why EIA is required for Water Resources Development projects. Basic principles. Procedure of EIA. Subject oriented requirements. Ecological evaluation. Practical considerations in writing impact statements.
EIA of water resources development projects in general. EIA of dam & reservoirs, Irrigation & Drainage and Hydropower projects. National environmental policy. Future of environmental impact assessment studies.

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-692 Project Construction and Management

Manager and management views, problem solving, project supervision. Data, decision making and implementation, Responsibility, interwoven problems, Project organization and strategy, Job planning and management. Project networking and control, project staff behavior, business problems, resource inventory, project finances, Land acquisition and use techniques. Project construction strategy; project phasing, cash flow, staff requirements. Material processing and handling, equipment and machinery, transportation fleet. Construction plant and machinery – functional classification and application, factors affecting selection of construction equipment. Construction planning techniques, activity sampling, incentives, value engineering, risk analysis, resource leveling. Operational analysis, schedule control. Network analysis techniques, use of CPM/PERT/Primvera. Computer applications to cost engineering, Earthwork excavation, handling and transportation machinery. River diversions during construction, construction of ancillary works. Deep/shallow water construction in rivers and sea. Construction techniques for dams, power stations, irrigation system, flood control measures.

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-693 Remote Sensing and GIS Applications in Water Resources

Components of GIS, function of GIS, vector data, raster data. Coordinate system, map projection. Spatial data input, spatial data management and analysis, overlay operation, attribute data handling. Network analysis. Statistical operation using GIS. Introduction to remote sensing and remotely sensed data. Electromagnetic radiation. Different types of satellite. Data acquisition, digital image processing. Aerial photography. Image analysis, image classification supervised and unsupervised classification, Image enhancement, edge enhancement, digital elevation model, TIN model, geostatistical tools, kriging techniques. Image interpretation for irrigation system, forestry, snow cover, and geology. Watershed delineation. Regional scale concept. Application of ILWIS model for: Irrigation water requirement, Determining of peak runoff, Erosion modeling, Flood hazard analysis, Geological survey, Groundwater pollution vulnerability assessment, GPS, components of GPS. Survey using GPS Errors in GPS survey, Total station.

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-694 Water Resources Planning and Economics

Planning: definitions, importance, characteristics, planning objectives. Planning process: levels, phases, steps, planning reports, project appraisal. WR development purposes, alternatives and their evaluation, multi-purpose planning, regional planning, Administration of planning programs, Decision making process; Demand projection; Production practices and constraints; Land, water and human resources.
Water resources planning in Pakistan, PC proforma, Water sector plans, development plans, planning organizations. Planning data: requirements, analysis and management, data transformation and transposition, forecasting. Planning aids and tools: optimization, simulation, remote sensing, GIS, etc, mathematical modeling. Project impact: environment, social, Public participation in WR projects.
Project Costs and benefits: Cost – components, construction and O&M costs, direct and indirect costs, cost phasing; Project benefits – primary & secondary, direct and indirect benefits, social and economic benefits; Adjustments of costs and benefits (shadow prices, subsidies, escalation, taxes). Engineering economy: Project

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-695 Water Resources System Analysis

Basic concepts of system engineering: objective function, constraint equations, decision variables, feasible, basic and optimal solutions, slack and surplus variables; Simplex method: standard and canonical forms, basic and non-basic variables, solution of simplex problems; Linear Programming: formulation of linear programming (LP) model, application of LP model to water resources problems, dual LP models, application of Tora and Lindo softwares, interpretation of solution output, sensitivity & range analysis; Integer Programming (IP) and its application, mixed integer programming; Dynamic programming (DP): stage and state variables, formulation and solution of DP models and their applications.

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-696 Computer Applications in Water Resources

Introduction to computers (Analog and Digital Computer). Computer functions (Opening, Saving, Editing and Modifying a file. Changing file name/path/drive. Creating and managing a folder. Printing a file). Internet utilization (Search engines, explore a specific site, E-mail applications, data transfer etc).
Use of Office Package (Word processor, Use of spread sheet for numeric calculations and drawing graphs, use of Power point.). Creating drawings/graphics using Office Package and specific graphic software as Corel Draw, AutoCADD etc
Preamble to computer language (Elements of programming. Input/Output, Assignment, and control statements. Loops and structured Programming. Programming Packages/Soft wares (Installation, Usage, Help file, Reference/Technical/User Manuals, and Application). Case Studies using HEC-RAS, HEC-HMS, HEC-RES and SIC models.

100 60 40 (2+1)
CWR-699 Seminar on current issues and special topics
Seminar & Thesis
CWR-700 M.Sc. Thesis
CWR-800 Ph.D. Dissertation